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史上最全的ASP.NET MVC路由配置

来源:zeusro 发布时间:2016-06-03 阅读次数:
先说一下基本的路由规则原则。基本的路由规则是从特殊到一般排列,也就是最特殊(非主流)的规则在最前面,最一般(万金油)的规则排在最后。这是因为匹配路由规则也是照着这个顺序的。如果写反了,那么即便你路由规则写对了那照样坐等404. XD 首先说URL的构造。 其实这个也谈不上构造,只是语法特性吧。

URL构造

命名参数规范+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute(name: "Default",url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}", defaults: new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } );

构造路由然后添加

Route myRoute = new Route("{controller}/{action}", new MvcRouteHandler()); routes.Add("MyRoute", myRoute);

直接方法重载+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" });   个人觉得第一种比较易懂,第二种方便调试,第三种写起来比较效率吧。各取所需吧。本文行文偏向于第三种。

路由规则

 1.默认路由(MVC自带)

routes.MapRoute( "Default", // 路由名称 "{controller}/{action}/{id}", // 带有参数的 URL new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } // 参数默认值 (UrlParameter.Optional-可选的意思) );

2.静态URL段

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" }); routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" }); routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction.js", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" });  没有占位符路由就是现成的写死的。 比如这样写然后去访问http://localhost:XXX/Shop/OldAction.js,response也是完全没问题的。 controller , action , area这三个保留字就别设静态变量里面了。

3.自定义常规变量URL段(好吧这翻译暴露智商了)

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute2", "{controller}/{action}/{id}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = "DefaultId" }); 这种情况如果访问 /Home/Index 的话,因为第三段(id)没有值,根据路由规则这个参数会被设为DefaultId 这个用viewbag给title赋值就能很明显看出 ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"]; 图不贴了,结果是标题显示为DefaultId。 注意要在控制器里面赋值,在视图赋值没法编译的。

4.再述默认路由

然后再回到默认路由。 UrlParameter.Optional这个叫可选URL段.路由里没有这个参数的话id为null。 照原文大致说法,这个可选URL段能用来实现一个关注点的分离。刚才在路由里直接设定参数默认值其实不是很好。照我的理解,实际参数是用户发来的,我们做的只是定义形式参数名。但是,如果硬要给参数赋默认值的话,建议用语法糖写到action参数里面。比如: public ActionResult Index(string id = "abcd"){ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"];return View();}

5.可变长度路由。

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }); 在这里id和最后一段都是可变的,所以 /Home/Index/dabdafdaf 等效于 /Home/Index//abcdefdjldfiaeahfoeiho 等效于 /Home/Index/All/Delete/Perm/.....

6.跨命名空间路由

 这个提醒一下记得引用命名空间,开启IIS网站不然就是404。这个非常非主流,不建议瞎搞。 routes.MapRoute("MyRoute","{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers", "UrlsAndRoutes.Controllers" }); 但是这样写的话数组排名不分先后的,如果有多个匹配的路由会报错。 然后作者提出了一种改进写法。 routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute","Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" }); routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" });  这样第一个URL段不是Home的都交给第二个处理 最后还可以设定这个路由找不到的话就不给后面的路由留后路啦,也就不再往下找啦。 Route myRoute = routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute", "Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" }); myRoute.DataTokens["UseNamespaceFallback"] = false;

7.正则表达式匹配路由

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new { controller = "^H.*"}, new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"});

 约束多个URL

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new { controller = "^H.*", action = "^Index$|^About$"}, new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"});

8.指定请求方法

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new { controller = "^H.*", action = "Index|About", httpMethod = new HttpMethodConstraint("GET") }, new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" });

9. WebForm支持

routes.MapPageRoute("", "", "~/Default.aspx"); routes.MapPageRoute("list", "Items/{action}", "~/Items/list.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } }); routes.MapPageRoute("show", "Show/{action}", "~/show.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } }); routes.MapPageRoute("edit", "Edit/{id}", "~/edit.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", "1" } }, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", @"\d+" } });  具体的可以看 使用Asp.Net4新特性路由创建WebForm应用 或者官方msdn

10.MVC5的RouteAttribute

首先要在路由注册方法那里 //启用路由特性映射 routes.MapMvcAttributeRoutes();  这样 [Route("Login")]  route特性才有效.该特性有好几个重载.还有路由约束啊,顺序啊,路由名之类的.

其他的还有路由前缀,路由默认值

[RoutePrefix("reviews")]<br>[Route("{action=index}")]<br>public class ReviewsController : Controller<br>{<br>}

 路由构造

// eg: /users/5 [Route("users/{id:int}"] public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... } // eg: users/ken [Route("users/{name}"] public ActionResult GetUserByName(string name) { ... }

 参数限制

// eg: /users/5 // but not /users/10000000000 because it is larger than int.MaxValue, // and not /users/0 because of the min(1) constraint. [Route("users/{id:int:min(1)}")] public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... }
Constraint Description Example
alpha Matches uppercase or lowercase Latin alphabet characters (a-z, A-Z) {x:alpha}
bool Matches a Boolean value. {x:bool}
datetime Matches a DateTime value. {x:datetime}
decimal Matches a decimal value. {x:decimal}
double Matches a 64-bit floating-point value. {x:double}
float Matches a 32-bit floating-point value. {x:float}
guid Matches a GUID value. {x:guid}
int Matches a 32-bit integer value. {x:int}
length Matches a string with the specified length or within a specified range of lengths. {x:length(6)}  {x:length(1,20)}
long Matches a 64-bit integer value. {x:long}
max Matches an integer with a maximum value. {x:max(10)}
maxlength Matches a string with a maximum length. {x:maxlength(10)}
min Matches an integer with a minimum value. {x:min(10)}
minlength Matches a string with a minimum length. {x:minlength(10)}
range Matches an integer within a range of values. {x:range(10,50)}
regex Matches a regular expression. {x:regex(^\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}$)}
具体的可以参考 Attribute Routing in ASP.NET MVC 5  对我来说,这样的好处是分散了路由规则的定义.有人喜欢集中,我个人比较喜欢这种灵活的处理.因为这个action定义好后,我不需要跑到配置那里定义对应的路由规则

11.最后还是不爽的话自己写个类实现 IRouteConstraint的匹配方法。

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; using System.Web; using System.Web.Routing; /// <summary> /// If the standard constraints are not sufficient for your needs, you can define your own custom constraints by implementing the IRouteConstraint interface. /// </summary> public class UserAgentConstraint : IRouteConstraint { private string requiredUserAgent; public UserAgentConstraint(string agentParam) { requiredUserAgent = agentParam; } public bool Match(HttpContextBase httpContext, Route route, string parameterName, RouteValueDictionary values, RouteDirection routeDirection) { return httpContext.Request.UserAgent != null && httpContext.Request.UserAgent.Contains(requiredUserAgent); } } routes.MapRoute("ChromeRoute", "{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" }, new { customConstraint = new UserAgentConstraint("Chrome") }, new[] { "UrlsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });  比如这个就用来匹配是否是用谷歌浏览器访问网页的。

12.访问本地文档

routes.RouteExistingFiles = true; routes.MapRoute("DiskFile", "Content/StaticContent.html", new { controller = "Customer", action = "List", }); 浏览网站,以开启 IIS Express,然后点显示所有应用程序-点击网站名称-配置(applicationhost.config)-搜索UrlRoutingModule节点 <add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="managedHandler,runtimeVersionv4.0" /> 把这个节点里的preCondition删除,变成 <add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="" />

 13.直接访问本地资源,绕过了路由系统

routes.IgnoreRoute("Content/{filename}.html"); 文件名还可以用 {filename}占位符。 IgnoreRoute方法是RouteCollection里面StopRoutingHandler类的一个实例。路由系统通过硬-编码识别这个Handler。如果这个规则匹配的话,后面的规则都无效了。 这也就是默认的路由里面routes.IgnoreRoute("{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}");写最前面的原因。

路由测试(在测试项目的基础上,要装moq)

PM> Install-Package Moq using System; using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting; using System.Web; using Moq; using System.Web.Routing; using System.Reflection; [TestClass] public class RoutesTest { private HttpContextBase CreateHttpContext(string targetUrl = null, string HttpMethod = "GET") { // create the mock request Mock<HttpRequestBase> mockRequest = new Mock<HttpRequestBase>(); mockRequest.Setup(m => m.AppRelativeCurrentExecutionFilePath) .Returns(targetUrl); mockRequest.Setup(m => m.HttpMethod).Returns(HttpMethod); // create the mock response Mock<HttpResponseBase> mockResponse = new Mock<HttpResponseBase>(); mockResponse.Setup(m => m.ApplyAppPathModifier( It.IsAny<string>())).Returns<string>(s => s); // create the mock context, using the request and response Mock<HttpContextBase> mockContext = new Mock<HttpContextBase>(); mockContext.Setup(m => m.Request).Returns(mockRequest.Object); mockContext.Setup(m => m.Response).Returns(mockResponse.Object); // return the mocked context return mockContext.Object; } private void TestRouteMatch(string url, string controller, string action, object routeProperties = null, string httpMethod = "GET") { // Arrange RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection(); RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes); // Act - process the route RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url, httpMethod)); // Assert Assert.IsNotNull(result); Assert.IsTrue(TestIncomingRouteResult(result, controller, action, routeProperties)); } private bool TestIncomingRouteResult(RouteData routeResult, string controller, string action, object propertySet = null) { Func<object, object, bool> valCompare = (v1, v2) => { return StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase .Compare(v1, v2) == 0; }; bool result = valCompare(routeResult.Values["controller"], controller) && valCompare(routeResult.Values["action"], action); if (propertySet != null) { PropertyInfo[] propInfo = propertySet.GetType().GetProperties(); foreach (PropertyInfo pi in propInfo) { if (!(routeResult.Values.ContainsKey(pi.Name) && valCompare(routeResult.Values[pi.Name], pi.GetValue(propertySet, null)))) { result = false; break; } } } return result; } private void TestRouteFail(string url) { // Arrange RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection(); RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes); // Act - process the route RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url)); // Assert Assert.IsTrue(result == null || result.Route == null); } [TestMethod] public void TestIncomingRoutes() { // check for the URL that we hope to receive TestRouteMatch("~/Admin/Index", "Admin", "Index"); // check that the values are being obtained from the segments TestRouteMatch("~/One/Two", "One", "Two"); // ensure that too many or too few segments fails to match TestRouteFail("~/Admin/Index/Segment");//失败 TestRouteFail("~/Admin");//失败 TestRouteMatch("~/", "Home", "Index"); TestRouteMatch("~/Customer", "Customer", "Index"); TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List", "Customer", "List"); TestRouteFail("~/Customer/List/All");//失败 TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All" }); TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete" }); TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete/Perm", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete/Perm" }); } }   最后还是再推荐一下Adam Freeman写的apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4这本书。稍微熟悉MVC的从第二部分开始读好了。前面都是入门(对我来说是扯淡)。但总比国内某些写书的人好吧——把个开源项目的源代码下载下来帖到书上面来,然后标题起个深入解析XXXX,然后净瞎扯淡。最后一千多页的巨著又诞生了。Adam Freeman的风格我就很喜欢,都是实例写作,然后还在那边书里面专门写了大量的测试。   哎没办法啊,技术差距就是这样了。
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